Description of the Salah – بَاب صِفَةِ اَلصَّلَاةِ
يُسَنُّ خُرُوجُهُ إِلَيْهَا: مُتَطَهِّرًا بِسَكِينَة ٍ وَوَقَارٍ مَعَ قَوْلِ مَا وَرَد
“وَقِيَامُ إِمَامٍ, فَغَيْرُ مُقِيمٍ إِلَيْهَا عِنْدَ قَوْلِ مُقِيمٍ :”قَدْ قَامَتْ اَلصَّلَاةُ
فَيَقُولُ :”اَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ” وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ فِي فَرْضٍ
رَافِعًا يَدَيْهِ إِلَى حَذْوِ مَنْكِبَيْه ِ
ثُمَّ يَقْبِضُ بِيُمْنَاهُ كُوعَ يُسْرَاهُ
وَيَجْعَلُهُمَا تَحْتَ سُرَّتِهِ,
وَيَنْظُرُ مَسْجِدَهُ فِي كُلِّ صَلَاتِهِ
It is recommended that a person should walk to perform the salah:
Upon purity (rather than making wudhu there)
In a dignified and a calm manner.
Whatever a person catches with the Imam they pray and what a person misses they make up later.
Say the recommended sayings as are famously narrated.
It is not recommended that a person stands till they see the Imam. This shows a sense of rushing and no tranquility. The standing of a few people makes others uneasy.
The Hanabila say that it is good to stand when the Muaddhin says “قد قامت الصلاة” whereas others like Imam Malik say there is no such fixed time to stand. The rows should be straight without the need to make it too rigid or tight. Fill the gaps. After this is done
Saying the opening takbeer of “AllahuAkbar” is a pillar of the Salah whereas raising the hands with it is just a Sunnah. The takbeer needs to be recited or else a person doesn’t enter into the salah. This is to be said while standing for the obligatory prayer and he should raise his hands up to the shoulders. Don’t be too robotic or too lazy in the approach. It should be in a moderate and normal way.
Then a person is to hold their left wrist with his right hand. The right palm holds the left wrist and it is to be placed below the navel. As per the Hanabila this is from the Sunnah regarding the placement of the hands. The scholars of hadith say that there is no fixed position related from the authentic ahadith regarding the position of the hands. Imam Ahmed, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Muhammad Ibn Hassan as-Shaybani all recommend to place the hands below the navel. Imam at-Tirmidhi while discussing this issue in his Sunan writes that some scholars opine to place the hands below the navel and some opine above the navel. There is scope in this issue and not a huge matter of difference. Imam Ahmad ruled that placing the hands both above and below the navel is fine. Above the navel is fine, but too high on the chest is not liked as it is an unnatural position.
The person should look at the place of sujood throughout the Salah. Some of the other scholars like from among the Ahnaf state that in the Rukuh a person looks at the feet, in the sujud a person looks at their thighs and while standing a person looks at the place of sujud etc. The Hanabila state the position throughout to be the place of sujud. It is a rough general area of sujud, not a pinpoint location. This is to make sure a person is focused.
“ثُمَّ يَقُولُ : “سُبْحَانَكَ اَللَّهُمّ َوَبِحَمْدِكَ, وَتَبَارَكَ اِسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ, وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ
(ثُمَّ يَسْتَعِيذ ُ ثُمَّ يُبَسْمِلُ (سِرًّا
After this a person recites, “”سُبْحَانَكَ اَللَّهُمّ َوَبِحَمْدِكَ, وَتَبَارَكَ اِسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ, وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ”. This is Mustahab and not Wajib. The person should then recite “أعوذُ بِٱللَّهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ” and “بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ” silently. All these three are recommended actions. The first two are recited only at the beginning of the salah whereas the Basmalah is recited before every new Surah.
ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ اَلْفَاتِحَةَ مُرَتَّبَةً مُتَوَالِيَةً, وَفِيهَا إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ تشديدةً,
وَإِذَا فَرَغَ قَالَ : “آمِينَ ” يَجْهَرُ بِهَا إِمَامٌ وَمَأْمُومٌ مَعًا فِي جَهْرِيَّةٍ وَغَيْرُهُمَا فِيمَا يُجْهَرُ فِيهِ.
Then a person recites Surah al-Fatiha in order, consecutively without leaving any long gaps. Special consideration and attention has to be given to the shaddas which are 11 in number.
After this recitation, the person says, “Ameen”. The Imam is known and the followers are the ones behind him. Both should say “Ameen” out loud when the salah itself is loud. The one praying alone or the one making up a missed rakah is reciting out loud, then they should recite the “Ameen” out loud too.
Surah al-Fatiha is a pillar of the salah. It must be recited by the Imam in every rakah for the salah to be valid and by the one praying alone in every rakah for the salah to be valid. As for the one in the congregation, reciting Surah al-Fatiha is not wajib for the person. The recitation of the Imam suffices the congregation be it in the loud or the silent prayers. As per Imam Ahmed, it is recommended for the person to recite when the Imam is not reciting. The Surah shouldn’t be rushed in the pause or gap provided by the Imam, there has to be khushu.
وَيُسَنُّ جَهْرُ إِمَامٍ بِقِرَاءَةِ صُبْحٍ وَجُمُعَةٍ وَعِيدٍ وَكُسُوفٍ وَاسْتِسْقَاءٍ, وَأُولَيَيْ مَغْرِبٍ وَعِشَاءٍ, وَيُكْرَهُ لِمَأْمُومٍ, وَيُخَيَّرُ مُنْفَرِدٌ وَنَحْوُهُ. ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ بَعْدَهَا سُورَةً فِي اَلصُّبْحِ مِنْ طِوَالِ اَلْمُفَصَّل ِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ مِنْ قِصَارِهِ, وَالْبَاقِي مِنْ أَوْسَاطِهِ.
It is recommended for the Imam to recite loudly in the salah of Fajr, al-Jumuah, Eid, Khusuf (eclipse), Istisqah (drought), the first two rakats of Maghrib and Isha.
It is disliked for the person behind the Imam to recite loudly (even whispering loudly). Recite such that only the person can hear themselves. Likewise with the tashahhud.
If the Imam doesn’t recite out loud for the loud prayers, even then the salah is valid. Only the iqamah would need to be said out loud. This is to be used only at a time of need. The one who is praying on his own has the option to recite silently or loudly in the loud prayers.
What kind of Surahs are recommended to be recited? al-Mufassal. Some say that it begins from Surah Qaf while other say it begins from Surah al-Hujjurat and this is a slight difference of opinion in the madhab. For those who cannot memorize the Quran, they should try to memorize al-Mufassal and alternate the Surahs from therein. If even that cannot be done then Juzz Amma should be memorized and perfected. This is the minimum that an average Muslim must memorize. For a student of knowledge excellent recitation and higher memorization is required. It doesn’t befit a student to spend time learning fiqh etc but making basic errors in reading the Quran.
al-Mufassal itself is split into 3 parts:
a. The lengthy part of al-Mufassal – Surah Qaf to Surah Mursalat
b. The middle part – Surah Amma to Surah ad-Duha
c. The short part – Surah ad-Duha to Surah an-Naas
When praying Subh (Fajr), it is recommended to recite the longer Surahs. In Maghrib, it is recommended to recite from the short surahs. As for the rest, then recite from the middle of al-Mufassal. This shows the duration of recitation of the various prayers.
ثُمَّ يَرْكَعُ مُكَبِّرًا رَافِعًا يَدَيْهِ, ثُمَّ يَضَعُهُمَا عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ مُفَرَّجَتَيْ اَلْأَصَابِعِ
وَيُسَوِّي ظَهْرَهُ, وَيَقُولُ : “سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي اَلْعَظِيمِ” ثَلَاثًا, وَهُوَ أَدْنَى اَلْكَمَالِ
ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُ رَأْسَهُ وَيَدَيْهِ مَعَه ُ قَائِلاً : “سَمِعَ اَللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ” وَبَعْدَ اِنْتِصَابِهِ: “رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ اَلْحَمْدُ مِلْءَ اَلسَّمَاءِ وَمِلْءَ اَلْأَرْضِ وَمِلْءَ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ بَعْدُ ”
وَمَأْمُومٌ : “رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ اَلْحَمْدُ” فَقَطْ .
ثُمَّ يُكَبِّرُ وَيَسْجُدُ عَلَى اَلْأَعْضَاءِ اَلسَّبْعَةِ, فَيَضَعُ رُكْبَتَيْهِ ثُمَّ يَدَيْهِ ثُمَّ جَبْهَتَهُ وَأَنْفَهُ.
Then a person should go into rukuh by raising their hands till the shoulders and raising the hands here is a Sunnah. After this the person should spread the fingers and place them on the knees and straighten the back.
The person should recite “سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي اَلْعَظِيمِ” 3 times and this is the minimum of that which is recommended. What is obligatory is reciting it once.
What is the minimum duration of rukuh to be valid? It’s in positions like these that studying fiqh from one of the madhaib becomes very important. It has been refined, researched and taught for over 12 centuries. The Hanabila state that if your hands are low enough to be able to make contact with the knees, then this rukuh is complete. Even if the back is slightly crooked and not bent straight, but the knees can be touched, then the rukuh is considered to be valid. A persons hand might be busy holding a child etc and their rukuh is still valid as long as the bowing is low enough. This is called a guideline/threshold (dhaabit) for knowing exactly what is required for a certain thing.
Then the person should raise the head and the hands while getting up from the rukuh. The scholars agree that it is Mustahab to raise the hands in 3 places – the opening takbeer, while bowing down to rukuh and raising from the rukuh. There is a fourth place as per al-Majd Ibn Taymiyyah al-Barakat which is during the rising for the third rakat.
As the person is rising the person should say, “سَمِعَ اَللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ” and not after standing. Once the person has stood up, he (Imam) says, “رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ اَلْحَمْدُ مِلْءَ اَلسَّمَاءِ وَمِلْءَ اَلْأَرْضِ وَمِلْءَ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ بَعْدُ”. According to those in the congregation, the Hanabila say that they should only recite, “رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ اَلْحَمْدُ” because the Prophet specified this specifically.
Then the person should go down into sujud on their 7 limbs – 2 feet, 2 knees, 2 hands and the forehead including the nose. A person should first place their knees on the floor followed by the hands, forehead and then the nose and the opposite when standing up. The person places the knees first without crashing down on the ground.
وَسُنَّ كَوْنُهُ عَلَى أَطْرَافِ أَصَابِعِه ِ
وَمُجَافَاةُ عَضُدَيْه ِ عَنْ جَنْبَيْهِ, وَبَطْنُهُ عَنْ فَخِذَيْهِ,
وَيَقُولُ: “سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي اَلْأَعْلَى” ثَلَاثًا, وَهِيَ أَدْنَى (اَلْكَمَالِ ) .
ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُ مُكَبِّرًا وَيَجْلِسُ مُفْتَرِشً ا وَيَقُولُ : “رَبِّ اِغْفِرْ لِي” ثَلَاثًا, وَهُوَ أَكْمَلُهُ, وَيَسْجُدُ اَلثَّانِيَةَ كَذَلِكَ, ثُمَّ يَنْهَضُ مُعْتَمِدًا عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ بِيَدَيْهِ, فَإِنْ شَقَّ فَبِالْأَرْضِ,
فَيَأْتِي بِمِثْلِهَ ا غَيْرَ اَلنِّيَّةِ والتحريمةِ وَالِاسْتِفْتَاحِ وَالتَّعَوُّذِ, إِنْ كَانَ تَعَوَّذ َ ثُمَّ يَجْلِسُ مُفْتَرِشًا.
It is recommended that a person places his feet on his toes in such a way such that they are straight and almost like facing the qiblah.
The forearms should be spread out and not stuck to the body. The woman brings the hands closer to the body for that is more appropriate for her. Generally speaking the salah of the man and the woman is the same with very few exceptions. The scholars from the female companions used to do such and this is what the other sahaba taught their families.
The stomach should not stick with the thighs, there should be some gap between the two.
The legs shouldn’t be stuck together and the feet shouldn’t be stuck together.
The person should say “سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي اَلْأَعْلَى” a minimum of 3 times as is recommended. After this a person says the takbeer and sits in a “muftarishan” position and say, “رَبِّ اِغْفِرْ لِي” . Saying it once is wajib and 3 times is recommended.
Muftarishan – Sit on the left foot, with the right foot is raised with the toes on the ground facing the qiblah.
A person likewise does another sujud and rises in the opposite way in which a person descended. A person can place the hands on the knees to balance themselves while standing up. If a person finds that difficult, then a person can lean on the ground using the hands.
A person performs the second rakah in a similar manner except that this time a person doesn’t need a new intention or a new takbeer of opening or any of the mentioned adhkar. The Hanabila say that the Istiadah is only once per salah. But if the person didn’t say it in the first rakah or missed it, then it is to be recited here. After the second rakah the person sits in the “muftarishan” position.
وَسُنَّ وَضْعُ يَدَيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ
وَقَبْضُ اَلْخِنْصَرِ وَالْبِنْصَرِ مِنْ يُمْنَاهُ,
وَتَحْلِيقُ إِبْهَامِهِمَا مَعَ اَلْوُسْطَى,
وَإِشَارَتُهُ بِسَبَّابَتِهَا فِي تَشَهُّدٍ وَدُعَاءٍ عِنْدَ ذِكْرِ اَللَّهِ مُطْلَقً ا وَبَسْطُ اَلْيُسْرَى,
ثُمَّ يَتَشَهَّدُ فَيَقُولُ: “اَلتَّحِيَّات ُ لِلَّهِ, وَالصَّلَوَاتُ اَلطَّيِّبَاتُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا اَلنَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اَللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اَللَّهِ اَلصَّالِحِينَ, أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اَللَّهُ, وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ”
The person should place the two hands on the two respective thighs. For raising the finger, hold/curl the small and ring finger, make a circle with the thumb and the middle finger. The index finger is generally in a resting position and as per the Hanabila whenever the name of Allah is mentioned, it is raised. In the tashahhud the index finger is raised 4 times by this method. The narration that the Prophet would make dua using the index finger is explained as such. It is a sign of Tawheed.
After this the person recites, “اَلتَّحِيَّات ُ لِلَّهِ, وَالصَّلَوَاتُ اَلطَّيِّبَاتُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا اَلنَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اَللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اَللَّهِ اَلصَّالِحِينَ, أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اَللَّهُ, وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ”
ثُمَّ يَنْهَضُ فِي مَغْرِبٍ وَرُبَاعِيَّة ٍ مُكَبِّرًا
وَيُصَلِّي اَلْبَاقِي كَذَلِكَ سِرًّا مُقْتَصِرًا عَلَى اَلْفَاتِحَةِ,
ثُمَّ يَجْلِسُ مُتَوَرِّكً ا فَيَأْتِي بِالتَّشَهُّدِ اَلْأَوَّلِ,
ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: “اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ, وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ”,
وَسُنَّ أَنْ يَتَعَوَّذَ فَيَقُولَ: “أَعُوذُ بِاَللَّهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ, وَمِنْ عَذَابِ اَلْقَبْرِ, وَمِنْ فِتْنَةِ اَلْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاتِ وَمِنْ فِتْنَةِ اَلْمَسِيحِ اَلدَّجَّالِ, اَللَّهُمَّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ اَلْمَأْثَمِ وَالْمَغْرَمِ “
When it’s Maghrib or a salah with 4 rakah, then a person stands up and says “AllahuAkbar” as a person is standing up. He prays the rest of the salah as is already mentioned keeping to only Surah al-Fatihah silently. If the Imam prolongs, then a person is allowed to recite another Surah. This though shouldn’t be made a common practice.
When standing up for the third rakah one doesn’t raise the hands as per the Hanabila. Other scholars like Majd Ibn Taymiyyah say that it is recommended to raise the hand for the third rakah. Sheikh Mansur al-Buhuti say the Hanabila don’t prefer raising the hands because not many ahadith mention doing this. There are authentic narrations from the companions, the Prophet and even mentioned in Bukhari. But the Mu’tamad is raising only in 3 places because that is more widely narrated and is not seen as a consistent Sunnah.
When a person stands, they stand by using their legs, unless they cannot and then they can use their hands. When a person sits after the required rakahs for the final sitting of tashahhud, they are to sit in a position of “Tawarruk” – Sit on the backside (touches the floor) with the left foot placed under the right leg facing outside because of which a person might lean slightly towards the left. This is to be done only if there is space. It is disliked, prohibited or could even be an innovation to do it if there is no space or is causing harm to someone in the congregation. This sitting is mustahab but not harming a Muslim is Wajib. Tawarruk is only for the salah with 2 tashahhuds as per the Hanabila.
Then the person recites what is obligatory,
“اَلتَّحِيَّات ُ لِلَّهِ, وَالصَّلَوَاتُ اَلطَّيِّبَاتُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا اَلنَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اَللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ, اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اَللَّهِ اَلصَّالِحِينَ, أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اَللَّهُ, وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ”
“اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ, وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ”
At the bare minimum for it to be valid, a person must recite, “اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ” in dire situations.
The person should seek refuge in Allah from 4 things – Fire of Jahannam, Punishment of the Grave, Trials of Life and Death and the Fitnah of Dajjal. This is Mustahab and other duas can be added.
وَتَبْطُلُ بِدُعَاءٍ بِأَمْرِ اَلدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ يَقُولُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ
ثُمَّ عِنْ يَسَارِهِ: “اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اَللَّهِ “, مُرَتَّبًا مُعَرَّفًا وُجُوبًا.
After this a person can make dua as they wish and this is Mustahab. The best of duas are the duas in the Quran and those narrated in the Sunnah. If the dua is for something purely for the dua, then the Hanabila are very strict on it and they say that the salah and the dua could become invalid. Ex: Making dua for an attractive woman, good car, watch etc. This is different from asking for a righteous wife who satisfies ones desires etc. Other scholars say that as long as the dua is permissible, it is allowed to be made.
Then the person recites the tasleem on both the sides and from the Mufradat of the Hanabila is that both the tasleems are wajib. The majority of the scholars say that the first one is Wajib and the second one is Sunnah. It is not enough to just say, “اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ” but rather the entire, “اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اَللَّهِ” has to be said for this is what the Prophet did consistently. Adding, “وَبَرَكَاتُهُ ” is allowed but not recommended and cannot be called a Sunnah for the authentic ahadith don’t mention it. It is to be said in order, in the stated manner clearly and it is obligatory to do so.
وَاِمْرَأَةٌ كَرَجُلٍ, لَكِنْ: تَجْمَعُ نَفْسَهَا,
أَوْ مُسْدِلَةً رِجْلَيْهَا عَنْ يَمِينِهَا وَهُوَ أَفْضَلُ.
The woman is like the man in salah except in a few cases: She should gather herself. Ex: In sujud as the man widens himself, the woman gathers her hands closer to her.
A woman instead of sitting like the man sits on her buttocks and both her legs are out to the right. This is recommended and not wajib for this is how our mother Aisha prayed. Otherwise she could even pray cross-legged and this is how Abdullah Ibn Umar used to teach his women folk to pray. The first method is better for her.
وَكُرِهَ فِيهَا اِلْتِفَاتٌ وَنَحْوُهُ بِلَا حَاجَةٍ وَإِقْعَاء ٌ
وَافْتِرَاشُ ذِرَاعَيْهِ سَاجِدًا, وَعَبَث ٌ وَتَخَصُّر ٌ وَفَرْقَعَةُ أَصَابِعَ وَتَشْبِيكُهَا, وَكَوْنُهُ حَاقِنً ا وَنَحْوَهُ, وَتَائِقًا لِطَعَامٍ وَنَحْوِه ِ
It is Makruh to:
Turn around and look here and there during the salah.
To sit on both of the ankles, with both of the toes facing forward. This is how Imam Ahmed explained the term “إِقْعَاء” and this is the understanding of the scholars of the Sunnah. Also from this is sitting between the feet but both the toes are still raised. This is even more disliked than the previous one.
To lay/place the forearms on the floor when making sujud.
To fiddle – with the beard (explicitly pointed out)
To place the hands on the hips.
To click/pop the fingers and knuckles.
To interlace the fingers.
To begin a prayer when a person has an extreme need to use the toilet, extremely hungry, extremely thirsty or likewise. It is makruh for the start and not during the middle of the salah.
Don’t just take rulings based on the literal rulings. The wordings gives one ruling, but the illah (reason) for that rulings opens up understanding to many other rulings.
وَإِذَا نَابَه ُ شَيْءٌ سَبَّحَ رَجُلٌ, وَصَفَّقَتْ اِمْرَأَةٌ بِبَطْنِ كَفِّهَا عَلَى ظَهْرِ اَلْأُخْرَى,
وَيُزِيلُ بُصَاقًا وَنَحْوَهُ بِثَوْبِهِ, وَيُبَاح ُ فِي غَيْرِ مَسْجِدٍ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ, وَيُكْرَهُ أَمَامَهُ وَيَمِينَهُ
If something occurs during the salah like a man seeking to enter or the Imam forgets, then the man says, “SubhanAllah” and the woman claps with the palm of one hand over the palm of the other.
The person can remove phlegm or saliva in the mouth using his clothes (or tissues) if the need arises. This doesn’t invalidate the salah but too much movement has to be avoided and minimized.
Outside the masjid, a person can expel this saliva etc on their left and not towards the front or to the right for that is disliked.
The Pillars of Salah – أَرْكَانُ اَلصَّلَاةِ
وَجُمْلَةُ أَرْكَانِهَا أَرْبَعَةَ عَشَرَ:
اَلْقِيَامُ, والتحريمة ُ وَالْفَاتِحَةُ, وَالرُّكُوعُ, وَالِاعْتِدَالُ عَنْهُ, وَالسُّجُودُ, وَالِاعْتِدَالُ عَنْهُ, وَالْجُلُوسُ بَيْنَ اَلسَّجْدَتَيْنِ, وَالطُّمَأْنِينَة ُ وَالتَّشَهُّدُ اَلْأَخِيرُ, وَجِلْسَتُهُ, وَالصَّلَاةُ عَلَى اَلنَّبِيِّ عَلَيْهِ اَلسَّلَامُ, وَالتَّسْلِيمَتَانِ, وَالتَّرْتِيبُ.
There are 14 Pillars of Salah:
2. To say, “AllahuAkbar” (Raising the hands is only Sunnah)
3. Reciting Surah al-Fatiha (Exception for the congregation behind the Imam)
4. Bowing for Rukuh
5. Standing up from Rukuh
6. Prostration – Sujud (7 limbs touch the floor)
7. Rising from the prostration
8. Sitting between the 2 prostration
9. Tranquility (Physical (Whereas Khushu is internal))
10. The final tashahhud
11. Sitting down for tashahhud
12. Sending salutations upon the Prophet Muhammad
13. The 2 Tasleems (Mufradat)
14. The Order
Scholars like Imam Musa al-Hajjawi (author of Zaad al-Mustaqni) say that the duration of “الطُّمَأْنِينَة” – physical tranquility should be atleast one tasbeeh. Others like Sheikh Mansur al-Buhuti say that there is no minimum as long as the person is stable and calm in their actions.
In al-Muntaha, the tasleem is obligatory twice in the fardh as well as the nawafil whereas in al-Iqna and al-Ghaya, the tasleem is obligatory twice only in the fardh.
Note: Don’t make the salah just about the physical actions but focus on the state of the heart during the salah. There is no need to look at the ones beside us and analyze what the are doing or what opinion they are following regarding a certain action etc. Fiqh can at times harden the heart if too much emphasis is placed on the technicalities and the physical aspect of it. On the other hand, it can also soften the heart and increase a persons iman if studied and implemented properly.
What made the scholars of the past greater than the latter scholars was firm iman, sound ikhlas and true knowledge with high levels of taqwa and zuhd.
اَلتَّكْبِيرُ غَيْرَ التحريمةِ, وَالتَّسْمِيع ُ وَالتَّحْمِيدُ, وَتَسْبِيحُ رُكُوعٍ وَسُجُودٍ, وَقَوْلُ : “رَبِّ اِغْفِرْ لِي”, مَرَّةً مَرَّة ً وَالتَّشَهُّدُ اَلْأَوَّلُ, وَجِلْسَتُهُ
There are 8 Obligatory Actions in Salah:
1. The takbeer except for the first one.
2. Tasmeeh – To say “سَمِعَ اَللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ”
3. Tahmeed – To say “رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ اَلْحَمْدُ”
4. The Tasbeeh of Rukuh (min once)
5. The Tasbeeh of Sujud (min once)
6. The Tasbeeh between the 2 prostrations (min once)
7. The First Tashahhud
8. Sitting down for the first tashahhud.
If a person forgets one of these wajibat behind and Imam then they don’t have to do anything. Forgetting to recite the wajibat like tasbeeh in either the rukuh or the sujud necessitates Sujud as-Sahw when praying alone or for the Imam.
The first tashahhud is wajib and the second tashahhud is a rukn.
If a person forgets to sit for the second tashahhud and gets up for the third rakah directly, then if the person remembers while going up he is to sit down. If a person remembers after standing up, then he is to complete that rakah instead of just sitting down and do sujud as-sahw at the end.
Generally we don’t distinguish between the fardh and the wajib in Usul. A few certain chapters of fiqh have a difference regarding the two. The difference is that everything mentioned other than the 6 conditions mentioned earlier and the 14+8 actions above, everything else is Sunnah
The pillars and the conditions have to be performed and the salah is insufficient and incomplete if they are missed out either because of a mistake or due to ignorance. The salah needs to be repeated because a whole pillar is missed and the person is not sinful for it. As for the wajib it is excused because of the ignorance or a mistake. Intentionally leaving a wajib or a condition or a pillar invalidates the salah.