اَلصَّلَاةُ عَلَى اَلْمَيِّتِ وَأَحْكَامُ اَلزِّيَارَةِ وَالْقُبُورِ
وَتَسْقُطُ اَلصَّلَاةُ عَلَيْهِ بِمُكَلَّفٍ, وَتُسَنُّ جَمَاعَةً
وَقِيَامُ إِمَامٍ وَمُنْفَرِدٍ عِنْدَ صَدْرِ رَجُلٍ وَوَسَطِ اِمْرَأَةٍ
ثُمَّ يُكَبِّرُ أَرْبَعًا, يَقْرَأُ بَعْدَ اَلْأُولَى وَالتَّعَوُّذِ اَلْفَاتِحَةَ بِلَا اِسْتِفْتَاحٍ
وَيُصَلِّي عَلَى اَلنَّبِيِّ بَعْدَ اَلثَّانِيَةِ
وَيَدْعُو بَعْدَ اَلثَّالِثَةِ, وَالْأَفْضَلُ بِشَيْءٍ مِمَّا وَرَدَ, وَمِنْهُ
Salatul Janazah is a fardh kifayah. It is sufficient for one mukallaf (a person who is sane and has reached the age of puberty) to perform the prayer even if it’s a woman. It is recommended to be performed in a congregation. It is recommended for the Imam and for the one praying alone to stand by the chest of the man and the middle part for the women.
The Imam should make takbeer four times. This Salah has no bowing or prostration. After the first takbeer, the person recites Isti’adha (seeking refuge in Allah), the Basmalah and Surah al-Fatiha without reading the dua of Istifta. As per the Hanabila, it is not recommended to recite any other Surah here.
After the second takbeer, the Imam sends salutations upon the Prophet ﷺ just like once does in Tashahhud.
After the third takbeer, the Imam makes dua for the deceased. In Sharh al-Muntaha, Imam Mansur al-Buhuti says that a minimum that must be recited is اللَّهُـمَّ اغْفِـرْ لَهُ وَارْحَمْـهُ (O Allah, Forgive him and have Mercy upon him). This is a place to make dua for whatever is relevant to the person. Any type of dua is permitted here though the best is to recite that which has been transmitted from the Prophet of Allah ﷺ.
اَللَّهُمَّ اِغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا وَمَيِّتِنَا, وَشَاهِدِنَا وَغَائِبِنَا, وَصَغِيرِنَا وَكَبِيرِنَا, وَذَكَرِنَا وَأُنْثَانَا, إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ مُنْقَلَبَنَ ا وَمَثْوَانَا, وَأَنْتَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
“O Allah, forgive those of us who are living and those of us who are dead, those of us who are present, and those of us who are absent, our young and our old, our male and our female. O Allah, you know our final destiny and abode, and You are capable of all things.”
اَللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهِ عَلَى اَلْإِسْلَامِ وَالسُّنَّةِ, وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا, اَللَّهُمَّ اِغْفِرْ لَهُ وَارْحَمْهُ وَعَافِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنْهُ, وَأَكْرِمْ نُزُلَهُ, وَأَوْسِعْ مُدْخَلَهُ, وَاغْسِلْهُ بِالْمَاءِ وَالثَّلْجِ وَالْبَرَد ِ ونَقِّهِ مِنْ اَلذُّنُوبِ وَالْخَطَايَا كَمَا يُنَقَّى اَلثَّوْبُ اَلْأَبْيَضُ مِنْ اَلدَّنَسِ, وَأَبْدِلْهُ دَارًا خَيْرًا مِنْ دَارِهِ, وَزَوْجًا خَيْرًا مِنْ زَوْجِهِ, وَأَدْخِلْهُ اَلْجَنَّةَ, وَأَعِذْهُ مِنْ عَذَابِ اَلْقَبْرِ, وَعَذَابِ اَلنَّارِ, وَافْسَحْ لَهُ فِي قَبْرِهِ وَنَوِّرْ لَهُ فِيهِ
“O Allah, to whomsoever of us You give life, grant him life (as a follower) of Islam and the Sunnah, and whomsoever of us You take in death take him in death as a follower of them both. O Allah, forgive him and grant him Mercy. Grant him ease and respite. Make his resting place a noble one, and facilitate his entry. Wash him with water, snow, and hail. Purify him from sins and mistakes just as a white garment is cleansed from dirt. Exchange for him a better home than this home and a spouse better than his spouse. Grant him entrance to Paradise and protect him from the trials of the grave and the torture of the Hell Fire. Make his grave spacious and grant him light while in it.”
Likewise for a woman the dua would be edited to suit her, like اللهم اغفر لها and so on. He dua for a better spouse is not necessarily for another spouse. What is referred to here is the Jannah equivalent of a spouse where the person is free from defects and in a much more perfect state. This applies to both men and women.
وَإِنْ كَانَ صَغِيرًا أَوْ مَجْنُونًا قَالَ:
اَللَّهُمَّ اِجْعَلْهُ ذُخْرًا لِوَالِدَيْهِ وَفَرَطًا وَأَجْرًا وَشَفِيعًا مُجَابًا, اَللَّهُمَّ ثَقِّلْ بِهِ مَوَازِينَهُمَا, وَأَعْظِمْ بِهِ أُجُورَهُمَا, وَأَلْحِقْهُ بِصَالِحِ سَلَفِ اَلْمُؤْمِنِينَ, وَاجْعَلْهُ فِي كَفَالَةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ, وقِهِ بِرَحْمَتِكَ عَذَابَ اَلْجَحِيمِ –
وَيَقِفُ بَعْدَ اَلرَّابِعَةِ قَلِيلًا, وَيُسَلِّمُ وَيَرْفَعُ يَدَيْهِ مَعَ كُلِّ تَكْبِيرَةٍ
If the deceased is a minor or insane, one says:
“O Allah, make him a bounty for his parents, a herald to happiness, and an intercessor whose supplication is answered. O Allah, make him a heavy weight on their (parents) scales, and magnify their rewards because of him. Place him with the righteous believers who went before. Entrust him to Ibrahim. Protect him with Your Mercy from the torture of Hell.”
The Prophet ﷺ is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari to have said that the children of the believers and in another narration, also those of the pagans to be under the care of Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام in Jannah. Some of the Hanbali scholars say that the children of the disbelievers are tested first and then admitted to Jannah or that they follow their parents. This is a problematic opinion as Allah does not burden a soul more than it can bear and definitely not hold them accountable for something which they haven’t done. It is best in this opinion to stick to the majority of the Hanbali scholars and scholars in general who state that all children are in Jannah.
The only reason we state that they are in Jannah because Allah explicitly mentioned it. The Prophet of Allah ﷺ himself as reported in Bukhari etc had at first remained silent when asked about the children of the disbelievers. It was only later when Allah showed him during the Night Journey and Ascension that we got a concrete reply. Even though the child has no sins, everyone enters Jannah only through Allah’s Mercy.
After the fourth takbeer, one stands for a short while and says, “As-Salamu-Alaykum”. The hands are raised with each saying of “AllahuAkbar”.
One tasleem is recommended and if it is said twice then there’s no harm in it. The hands are to be raised for each takbeer just like in Eid prayer.
Based on the Hanbali primer, Akhsar Al-Mukhtasarat authored by Ibn Balban al-Hanbali as taught by Sheikh Zahed Fettah حفظه الله